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Modelo Econômico – Brasil junho 11, 2008

Posted by portaldoestudante in Geografia.
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  A economia-mundo baseia-se nas importações e exportações. Normalmente, os países subdesenvolvidos caracterizam-se por exportar matéria-prima (baixo preço) e importar produtos manufaturados (elevado preço) de países desenvolvidos. Isso não foi diferente no Brasil durante e após a Revolução Industrial, onde a exportação cafeeira constituía a principal fonte de renda do país. O nosso principal produtor de café era o estado de São Paulo. Esse modelo de exportação gerava capital para que se importasse produtos manufaturados fazendo, assim, a economia girar.

 Durante as crises de superprodução do café, vários trabalhadores rurais iam para a cidade em busca de emprego e de uma vida melhor, gerando mão-de-obra barata à disposição. Além disso, as importações e exportações caiam assustadoramente. Foi em meio a uma dessas crises que o país vivenciou os efeitos da famosa Queda da bolsa de Nova York em 1930 (Grande Depressão). Todo o mercado mundial foi retraído e os preços das matérias-primas desabaram. A economia brasileira viu o chão abrir sobre os seus pés. Não mais exportava nem importava, pois não tinha renda (gerada pelo café). Foi a partir de então que o Brasil viu-se obrigado a produzir. As indústrias que surgiram durante o auge do café, devido ao capital excedente de sua exportação tinham, agora, um ambiente livre de concorrência estrangeita e podiam florescer livremente. Houve, então, a substituição das importações. Os brasileiros não mais optavam por produtos estrangeiros (caros e de difícil acesso). 

  A passagem da exportação de produtos primários para a produção industrial foi motivada por Getúlio Vargas, que protegeu as indústrias nacionais por meio de aumentos das taxas alfandegárias e criação de estatais, com a função de servir como indústria base para as empresas privadas emergentes. Mais tarde, com Juscelino Kubitschek a economia nacional foi aberta para investimentos estrangeiros, com o intuito de modernizar a nossa economia. 

  Como já era de se esperar, as indústrias no Brasil ficaram concentradas no centro-sul e sudeste (principalmente São Paulo), devido ao café, que forneceu infra-estrutura ferroviária, capital de investimento e mercado consumidor.

  Um dos grandes problemas do Brasil é o transporte de mercadorias sendo realizado, quase que totalmente, por vias rodoviárias. Esse meio de transporte encarece o preço final do produto e “sobrecarrega” as rodovias nacionais, ocasionando danos às ruas, avenidas… do país. A melhor opção seria as ferrovias, porém, no Brasil, essas estão em condições precárias, além de não se ter uma malha ferroviária de grande porte (tamanho). Outro fator prejudicial é a concentração de infra-estrutura de transporte no centro-sul e sudeste do país  

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Comentários»

1. Antonio - novembro 5, 2009

gostaria de obter mais informações sobre os planos econômicos que vigorarão no brasil na premeira república até o plano mreal.

2. andre - agosto 29, 2010

primeiramente queria parabenizar o trabalhao de voces em relação as informação que são passadas ao seu publico alvo,como nos estamos na época das eleisões eu queria que voces abordaecem mais o assunto policas no brasil ex:(ex presidentes brasileiros)

3. felipe - fevereiro 15, 2011

Muito ruim (N)

4. Jonathan - agosto 17, 2011

Boa noite, gostei muito do tópico, mas achei meio incompleto, mas mesmo assim está de parabéns pois está nos proporcionando um conhecimento a mais.

5. Julia Ferreira - agosto 26, 2012

queria saber qual é o modelo ecônomico do Brasil atualmente

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